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July 15 2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

What Is Presidents Day?

What are we celebrating on the holiday known as “Presidents Day”? Is it really a holiday at all? And what happened to Lincoln’s and Washington’s birthdays?

Some of us think we’re observing George Washington’s Birthday (perpetually moved to more convenient Monday dates since 1971), some of us think we’re celebrating the combined birthdays of George Washington and Abraham Lincoln (two formerly separate holidays smushed into one), and some of us think we’re honoring the memory of all U.S. presidents past and present. Which is it?

Throughout the 19th century, George Washington was the towering figure of U.S. history to the American public. In honor of the man who commanded the Continental Army and led the American colonies to victory in the Revolutionary War, served as first President of the United States of America, and earned the sobriquet “The Father of Our Country,” Washington’s Birthday, February 22, was celebrated with more patriotic fervor than any holiday save the Fourth of July. Accordingly, the observance of Washington’s Birthday was made official in 1885 when President Chester Alan Arthur signed a bill establishing it as a federal holiday. (Washington was actually born on February 11, 1732, under the Julian calendar in effect at the time he was born, but his birth date is reckoned as February 22 under the Gregorian calendar which was adopted in 1752.)

The first uniform Monday holiday plan was promulgated by NATO [the National Association of Travel Organizations] in the early 1950’s. It called for combining Washington’s and Lincoln’s Birthdays into a single President’s Day, to be celebrated the third Monday in February, and shifting Memorial Day to the fourth Monday in May, Independence Day to the first Monday in July and Veterans Day to the second Monday in November.

This initial effort met with sporadic success in a few states. But after several years of attempting to get the individual states to adopt uniform Monday holidays, it became apparent that a Federal bill was needed to serve as an example for state action.

President Nixon is frequently identified as the party responsible for changing Washington’s Birthday into President’s Day and fostering the notion that it is a day for commemorating all U.S. Presidents, a feat he supposedly achieved by issuing a proclamation on 21 February 1971 which declared the third Monday in February to be a “holiday set aside to honor all presidents, even myself.” This claim stems not from fact, however, but from a newspaper spoof. Actually, presidential records indicate that Nixon merely issued an Executive Order (11582) on 11 February 1971 defining the third Monday of February as a federal holiday, and the announcement of that Executive Order identified the day as “Washington’s Birthday.”

 

         

 

 

 

13 Surprising Facts About the Presidential Line of Succession

If the president steps down or dies, who takes over? Well, the vice president, of course. Okay, but what if the vice president steps down or dies? Well, that's when the Speaker of the House steps in. Okay, but what if…?

As you can see, the presidential line of succession can get murky, fast. And it's by no means written in stone. Today, the presidential line of succession is 18 people deep. After the president, it goes (deepbreath) vice president, Speaker of the House, President pro tempore of the Senate, Secretary of State, Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of Defense, the Attorney General, Secretary of the Interior, Secretary of Agriculture, Secretary of Commerce, Secretary of Labor, Secretary of Health and Human Services, Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, Secretary of Transportation, Secretary of Energy, Secretary of Education, Secretary of Veterans Affairs, and, finally, the Secretary of Homeland Security. (Phew.)

But, as with all things in U.S. politics, the line of succession isn't as straightforward as it seems. Over the years, it's constantly been in flux; the laws around it have morphed, and it remains hotly debated in some niche political quarters. In other words, it's not just the world's most exclusive VIP list. It's a political minefield in its own right. And for more savvy political trivia, get a load of the 30 Craziest Things U.S. Presidents Have Done.

 

 

52 Astonishing Facts You Never Knew About U.S. Presidents

Kristine Solomon

 

       

Abraham Lincoln turned down the chance to host elephants

In 1861, the King of Siam offered to gift President Lincoln 'several pairs of young male and female elephants,' which were indigenous to his country (today we know it as Thailand). The elephants could be bred to multiply, the king suggested, and the herds could be used as 'beasts of burden' that could work alongside the military during the Civil War. The president politely declined the offer, opting to use steam power instead of animal labor.

 

Gerald Ford modeled on the cover of Cosmopolitan magazine

Before he became our nation's 38th president, Gerald Ford had a side gig as a model. In 1942, shortly after joining the Navy, he landed an uncredited spot on the cover of Cosmopolitan in his uniform. Another fun fact? It was during this time that he met and went on to marry a fellow model, Elizabeth Bloomer. She became known to Americans as First Lady Betty Ford.

 

 

 

Herbert Hoover's White House staff hid from him

In a very diva move, 31st president Herbert Hoover insisted that his staff never see him around the White House—and he didn't want to see them either. This caused quite the charade, of course, as the staff felt pressured to hide from the president whenever he was present. According to White House journalist Kenneth Walsh, staffers would 'pile into closets' and 'hide behind bushes so the president couldn't see them.'


6/52 SLIDES © John Knoote/Daily Mail/REX/Shutterstock

Lyndon B. Johnson proposed to Lady Bird with a $2.50 ring from Sears

In 1934, Lyndon B. Johnson, then 26, proposed to Claudia Alta 'Ladybird' Taylor, 22, on their first date. Though she declined his offer, Johnson continued to woo her from afar, sending his sweetheart 90 letters in the span of about 90 days. Impatient, Johnson traveled from Washington, D.C. to Texas to arrive at her door with an ultimatum—marry me now or forever hold your peace. She accepted his proposal and the $2.50 engagement ring that came with it. Find out more fascinating trivia about America's first ladies.

 

 

Ulysses S. Grant was arrested for speeding—on a horse

A noted equestrian, our 18th president was quite confident on a horse—perhaps too confident. While driving his horse and buggy at a furious pace during his presidential tenure, Grant was pulled over twice within the span of 24 hours. The second time, one bold police officer decided to arrest the commander-in-chief, who was ultimately given a fine. Legend has it that the officer and the president eventually became friends.

 

 

 

The first White House bowling alley was a birthday present for Harry Truman

In 1947, 33rd president Harry Truman became responsible for having a bowling alley installed in the West Wing in celebration of his 63rd birthday. He became the first person to ever throw a bowling ball down the White House lane, and one of the seven pins he knocked down is on display at the Smithsonian Institution.

 

 

 

 

James Garfield could write in Greek with one hand and Latin with the other

The ambidextrous James Garfield could write in two languages simultaneously: Latin and Greek. He taught both languages while attending the acclaimed Williams College in Massachusetts, where he was later named president before going on to be elected as the 20th president of the United States.

 

 

 

 

 

19/52 SLIDES © Historia/REX/Shutterstock

Abraham Lincoln allowed seances in the White House

First Lady Mary Todd Lincoln reportedly invited mediums to the White House to call on departed spirits through seances during Abraham Lincoln's tenure. While there's no definitive evidence, the president was said to have attended some of the events. He was also thought to believe in the occult to an extent.

 

 

No one could dance in the White House during James Polk's tenure

The wife of 11th president James Polk was a strict Presbyterian and looked down upon dancing, so it was banned in the White House while her husband was in office and at the Inaugural Ball. She also disapproved of horse racing and the theater. Here are 14 of the most gorgeous inaugural gowns worn by First Ladies.

 

 

 

Chester Arthur held a White House yard sale to finance a redecorating project

In what was probably the first White House yard sale, the 21st president sold two dozen wagon loads of presidential merchandise including a pair of Abraham Lincoln's pants and John Quincy Adams' hat. He then used the money to hire an interior decorator. Don't miss these hilarious quotes from past presidents.

 

 

 

Four presidents were cheerleaders

What did Ronald Reagan, Dwight Eisenhower, Franklin Roosevelt, and George W. Bush have in common? They all served as cheerleaders either in high school or college. Talk about squad goals!

 

 

 


Fourteen vice presidents have become president (eight because the president died in office, and one because the president resigned). Of the five non-“accidental” presidents—John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Martin Van Buren, Richard Nixon, and George H. W. Bush—all but Nixon were elected immediately after their term as vice president.

 

 

Dwight Eisenhower ordered the assassination of squirrels

Our 34th president, an avid golfer, got sick and tired of squirrels messing up his game by digging up the green to bury their acorns. He ordered his valet to shoot the rodents, but the Secret Service forbade the use of guns on the White House grounds, so groundkeepers trapped and released the animals instead. Check out these other things presidents have tried to have banned from the White House.

 

 

Theodore Roosevelt officially gave the White House its name

Though the residence at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue is painted white, it was known as The Executive Mansion and The President's Palace until October 1901, when then-president Theodore Roosevelt referred to it as The White House. The 26th president made the moniker official when he had it engraved on his stationery.

 

 

 

BY NOEL GROVEWILLIAM B. BUSHONG, AND JOEL D. TREESE


PUBLISHED 

It may seem like Washington, D.C. was the perfect spot for the U.S. captial, but its selection was controversial. Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton and others wanted the capital to be located in a northern commercial center. Southern leaders proposed that the federal city be built in an agricultural region to avoid concentrating financial and political power. Businessmen in Philadelphia and New York sought to lure the president by building great residences for him, but George Washington selected a site currently located between Virginia and Maryland on the Potomac River. He believed that the location would be the seed for a great capital city, the equal of Paris or London

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Every U.S. president since 1976 has declared at least one national emergency.

Rating

TrueAbout this rating 

Origin

In 1976, U.S. President Gerald Ford signed off on the National Emergencies Act (NEA), federal legislation that ended all previous national states of emergency and formalized the process by which the President can declare states of emergencies and undertake special powers during those emergencies.

In general, the President may initiate a state of emergency by issuing a declaration (typically via executive order). An existing state of emergency can be terminated by the President himself, or by a joint resolution by Congress. The President can veto such a resolution, however, requiring both houses of Congress to then override the veto by a two-thirds vote.

When President Donald Trump hinted in early 2019 his intention to bypass Congress and secure funding for building a wall along the U.S.-Mexico border by declaring a national emergency — and then followed through on that plan — the subject of “national emergencies” suddenly became a hot topic of public discussion. Since the public tends to associate that term with dire threats such as terrorist attacks, epidemics, or the outbreak of war, many people were surprised to learn that several dozen national emergencies had been declared since the passage of the NEA in 1976 — as reflected in a viral social media post:

 

According to the Brennan Center for Justice, at the time of President Trump’s declaration of a National Emergency Concerning the Southern Border of the United States in February 2019, some 58 national emergencies had previously been declared by various presidents since 1979, with 31 of them still in effect as of February 2019.

The gist of the social media post displayed above is therefore correct, in that every U.S. president since 1976 (excluding Gerald Ford, whose term ended in January 1977) has declared at least one national emergency, although we came up with some slightly different numbers. (Our tally based on the Brennan Center’s list has Presidents George H.W. Bush and George W. Bush each declaring one more emergency than stated above, and President Barack Obama declaring one fewer than stated.) In addition, the majority of those emergency declarations remain in effect as of this writing.

The focus of these national emergencies has ranged from President Carter’s blocking Iranian government property after fifty-two American diplomats and citizens were taken hostage in Tehran in 1979 and President Reagan’s barring trade with Nicaragua in 1985, to President Clinton’s prohibiting transactions with terrorists who threatened to disrupt the Middle East peace process in 1995 and President Obama’s declaring an emergency over the H1N1 influenza pandemic of 2009.

In short, although many Americans may not have been aware of it at the beginning of 2019, the United States has been under one or more states of national emergency continuously for the last four decades.

Sources
  • Brennan Center for Justice.   “A Guide to Emergency Powers and Their Use.”
        5 December 2018.

  • Brennan Center for Justice.   “Declared National Emergencies Under the National Emergencies Act, 1978-2018.”
        5 December 2018.

  • Goitein, Elizabeth.   “The Alarming Scope of the President’s Emergency Powers.”
        The Atlantic.   Jan/Feb 2019.

  • Moon, Emily.   “The United States’ States of Emergencies.”
        Pacific Standard.   8 January 2019.

BY DAVID MIKKELSON

PUBLISHED 16 FEBRUARY 2019

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Vital for survival.

 

It's called the "Rule Of 3"


You’ll never know exactly what kind of crisis you’ll face until it’s upon you. It could be a hurricane. It could be an earthquake. It could be a broke-down car on a two-lane road in the middle of the desert at midnight.  It could be a "very likely," EMP strike. - I'll touch on that more in the days to come.


Although you can’t necessarily predict the type of crisis you’ll personally face, you’ll know it when it arrives. There won’t be any question about it. You’ll have to take action to survive, and you’ll have to take action fast.

That’s where “The Rule of Three” comes in. Basically, it goes like this:

● You can survive for three hours without shelter.
● You can survive for three days without water.
● You can survive for three weeks without food.

Three hours, three days, three weeks. Shelter, water, food. These are the things you’ll need to take care of. And you’ll need to take care of them in this order.

For today lets go over shelter-

 

Why Shelter Is the Most Urgent Need?

At first glance, you might wonder why shelter is a higher priority than water. The answer is simple. You can survive for a longer period of time without water than you can survive without shelter.

Without shelter, you are at extreme risk of hypothermia, which is one of the most common ways to die from exposure. At least 1,500 Americans die every year from hypothermia.

What is hypothermia? It’s when your core body temperature drops below 95 degrees Fahrenheit. If your core body temperature drops just 3.8 degrees from normal, you are entering a hypothermic state.

Hypothermia is usually caused by exposure to extreme cold. For example, if you are underdressed for the weather, and you get caught in a blizzard or snowstorm, your core body temperature could drop quickly.

Of course, hypothermia can happen in less obvious situations. Temperatures in the Rocky Mountains can dip into the 40s at night even in the middle of summer. Just one night without proper shelter could lead to loss of appendages due to frostbite or even death.

As the saying goes, an ounce of preparation is worth a pound of cure. With that in mind, here are two ideas for making sure you have proper shelter at all times. One of these ideas requires preparation. The second idea requires knowledge, creativity, and whatever resources you have at your disposal.

Always Have a Quality Tent/Or Rain Gear

A modern pop-up tent is the easiest way to provide yourself with shelter to stay warm and dry against the elements. They go up in minutes and, depending on the size tent you buy, you can provide shelter for two to 10+ people.

One place you should always keep a tent: in your house. That might sound silly at first. Why would you need a tent in your house? Let me explain… 

Let’s say both the electricity and the heat go out in your house. It’s the middle of winter and you don’t have any other way to provide heat. You also don’t have anybody you can call. What do you do?

One thing you can do is put your tent up inside your house. Sleep inside the tent with other family members.

Why would you do this? Simple. 

 

The enclosed tent will capture the body heat from those inside the tent and maintain a higher temperature than inside your unheated home. Add sleeping bags and you should be able to sleep comfortably even without an external heat source.

Obviously, a tent is also a valuable item to have in case you ever have to “bug out” and go live “on the run.”

How to Build a Shelter in the Wild?

There are no guarantees in a crisis. As such, there’s no guarantee you’ll have your tent with you or near you when a crisis happens. This is why it’s also important to know the basics of how to build a temporary shelter in the wilderness.

One of the easiest types of shelters to build is an A-frame. There are still some houses built this way. They are called A-frames because, from the front, they look like a letter “A.”

Here’s how to build an A-frame shelter in the forest (print this/save it):

Step 1: Find a log about 7-10 feet long and 2-3 inches in diameter. If you can’t find one that’s already on the ground, you can sometimes find a dead tree with rotted roots that you can push over. (Remember, the A-frame should be long enough that you can lay down inside of it.)

Step 2: Place the log in the crook of a tree so that one end of the log is on the ground and the other is in the crook of the tree. If you can’t find a suitable tree with a crook to hold the log, then you can lash the log to the trunk of a tree with rope or twine.

Step 3: Lean pine or leafy branches against the log to form the “legs” (walls) of the A-frame. Pine branches are fairly flexible and can be woven together to keep out the elements. The denser you pack the branches, the more you will keep out the cold and the wind. Make the walls thicker by layering branches on top of each other.

Step 4: Fill in any gaps with sod, moss, or even snow to further insulate your A-frame shelter.

A well-made A-frame shelter can keep you dry in rain and snow and help you stay warm in cold weather. To increase warmth, build a small fire at the opening of your A-frame. Just don’t let the flames get too high… you don’t want your center pole to catch fire!

 

Tomorrow we will go over water gathering/boiling/and purifying.

 

As you may know, I run the Family Defense Network, a community of like minded survivalist, and a place where our experts train you to -

 

Prepare. Defend. And Survive - No Matter What -

 

It started with a deadly vision/dream/thought I had, really not sure what it was- You can see that story here.

Prepare. Defend. Survive

No Matter What!

Lou Prep
Founder
The Concealed Network.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

             

 

 

 

 

 

You must go on adventures to find out where you truly belongs
Sue Fitzmaurice

 

 

 

                                                           

 

 

                            One of our favorite LITTLE THINGS is camping in the spring  Every part is so much fun...from planning what  YUMMY food to bring to hitting the road with your favorite people . We love disconnecting and soaking in the quiet slow pace of nature and ending the night with the campfire and smores. The only thing on your list while camping is to slow down and enjoy the little things (which really are the big things).  We can't wait for our first trip of the year.
                           XOXO   Patti
                                    

                                                                                              

 

           

 
 

 

 

 

      

 

 

              

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   Beautiful and Rarely Seen  Images

U.S. Mexico Border

 

The Gap between the U.S. and Europe

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marianas Ygona  Bremerton Correspondent

Taken from  my back deck. 4 days ago
Then I tried to post a picture of our first snow yesterday, taken from the same deck, but I don't know what happened to my post; didn't show up.

  • Bremerton, like Seattle, has a London-like weather, so it is not too often we'd get a sunset like this especially in winter, the reason for taking this picture. 4 days later, we had 4 inches of snow. How fickle the weather can be.

  • Comments   

  • Bernadette Oteyza Ooh what a sight!!!

  • Milagros Gaffud Cauilan Beautiful sight.

    Thelma Alcordo : it's images like this that's unique beautiful and rare that the website would love and be proud to grace our website.  Congratulations Marianas.!
    It's posted next to other amazing images.Thanks.

 

Taken from Tessie's balcony in Puerto Villarta
What a beautiful Sunset !

Sent by Tessie Sienes Jessop Sudbury Canada Correspondent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
BY MADISYN TAYLOR  

 

Why We Lash Out

 
 

It is human nature to sometimes lash out at others, but we can learn to navigate our feelings without losing our center.

Each one of us has experienced situations where we've found ourselves lashing out at someone without meaning to. We later berate ourselves for losing control and feel guilty for treating the other person badly. And while it is human nature that our emotions and moods will get the better of us from time to time, we can learn to navigate our feelings and negotiate difficult situations without losing our center. 

Often, when we lash out, it is because we are having a difficult time containing the emotions that are coming up inside of us. We may be feeling overwhelmed, afraid, frustrated, stressed out, or angry. Having these feelings boiling up inside of us can be very uncomfortable, and it is natural to want to release them. But when we release our feelings from our body by directing them outward and toward someone else, they inevitably impact the "innocent bystander" to whom we are directing this energy. They not only get the brunt of our anger, frustration, or stress, but also they can actually experience this energy as a physical force hitting their bodies. 

When you find yourself in a situation where you are about to lash out at the person in front of you, try to center yourself by breathing slowly and deeply. A few slow inhales and exhales can help dissipate the intensity of your feelings before they escape you. Later, when you find yourself in a more reflective state, sit down for a moment; recall the feelings in your body just before and during your outburst; note where you feel sensations coming up in your body; and ask yourself if they are connected to any core issue or experience from your life. If nothing comes to mind, then revisit the situation again, exaggerating the details of what happened by indulging in outlandish "what if" fantasies. Exaggerating events after the fact can help expose the unconscious subtext behind your heated response. Understanding the motivation behind your reactions can help you avoid lashing out again when a similar situation comes up. In learning to navigate around your emotions, you are giving yourself the tools to feel better the next time your emotions start to boil. In doing so, you will be taking care of yourself by alleviating your own uncomfortable feelings while respecting and protecting those around you.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

      

Einstein's Formula for Success
by Ron White  Your Achievement Newsletter

 

Albert Einstein had a formula for success. Can you believe that? One of the greatest minds of all time developed a math formula for success! I suggest you read this carefully— this may be the most important math equation that you will ever see. 

“If A equals success, then the formula is: A = X + Y + Z. 
X is work. Y is play. Z is keep your mouth shut.” 

Einstein no doubt had an excellent sense of humor. Let's look at the three variables in this equation:

Einstein’s Formula for Success

1. Work: Einstein had a tremendous work ethic and because of that, gave more to society and modern science than any person in recent times.

2. Play: He did not, however, work 24 hours a day. Einstein made time for fun and relaxation. While his idea of fun might be different than yours, it doesn't mean it wasn't play.

3. Keep your mouth shut: My favorite part of Einstein’s success formula is this one. I believe that the person who talks the least says the most.

Albert Einstein had nothing to prove. He felt no need to be the "Chatty Cathy" he could have been with all of his knowledge. It wasn't important to him to talk to everyone he met or talk over their heads to show off his IQ. Instead he learned the value of quietness and solitude. 

Shift your mindset. Don’t be a talker; be a listener. You can make more friends in five minutes by being interested in what others have to say than you can make in five years of trying to get others interested in you. So how do you become interested in them? You ask questions and then keep your mouth shut! Einstein realized he could influence people by choosing when to speak and validating others by extending them the courtesy of listening. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SIMPLE SECRETS TO A HAPPY LIFE

What will it take for you to be happy?

Benjamin Franklin pointed out that, "The U.S. Constitution doesn't guarantee happiness, only the pursuit of it.
You have to catch up to it yourself."

A lot of us pin our happiness to external factors...if only we had more money...or a better house...or whatever your latest "want" is, but your happiness has been...and always will be... right inside yourself.

That concept is liberating because it finally puts you in charge of your own happiness. That's why I'm excited about the latest book that BJ Gallagher and I teamed up to write,The Road to Happiness. Many of you are familiar with the special "touch" that BJ brings to her books through her stories and her original poetry.

Today, I'd like to share my introduction from The Road to Happiness. I hope that it'll start you thinking about where your happiness truly lives.

The Road to Happiness provides 21 thought-provoking chapters on creating a happy life. I hope reading this book will be the start of yours...

 

 

An excerpt from
The Road to Happiness
by Mac Anderson and BJ Gallagher

When I travel on business, I like to talk to the taxi drivers who take me from the airport to my hotel, or to a convention center, or to a restaurant. Taxi drivers are often immigrants with interesting personal histories and unusual cultural backgrounds. I ask them how long they've been in America, how they chose which city to live in, and what they like best about where they live. Of course, I also ask them for advice on good local restaurants and any special attractions they'd recommend to a visitor. I've had some great experiences on my travels, thanks to the advice of taxi drivers!

On one trip about ten years ago, I was making conversation with the taxi driver, asking him my usual questions about how he came to live where he lived. Then I asked him a hypothetical question: "If you could live anywhere in the world-and if money was no object-where would you live?"

Without hesitating even for a second, he replied, "I live in my heart. So it really doesn't matter where my body lives. If I am happy inside, then I live in paradise, no matter where my residence is."

I felt humbled and a little foolish for my question. Of course he was right-happiness is an inside job. He had reminded me of something I already knew, but had forgotten. If you can't find happiness inside yourself, you'll never find it in the outside world, no matter where you move. Wherever you go, there you are. You take yourself with you.

I am grateful for the wisdom of that taxi driver. And I'm grateful for all the wisdom others have shared with me about how to be happy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suroysuroy { tour } sa Carcar

 

 

 

               

 

                                                                                                               

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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